The EDF Talent Acquisition Specialist supports assigned business functions and our environmental research programs in securing the best talent. We presently employ about 750 people worldwide but our programs and reach are growing in the environmental research and advocacy arenas, with many new projects and offices opening around the globe.
** NOTE this role can be based in either NYC or SFO office**
You are more than capable on executing the day-to-day but you have a deep passion for finding the right person, building relationships and networks, managing a good recruitment and sourcing process, weaving diversity and inclusion through everything you do, and collaborating with hiring managers and HR colleagues.
- Full lifecycle recruitment for open roles across both EDF programs and corp.functions; partnering with management and developing /executing strategy, screen/interview/evaluate candidates, perform reference checks, and facilitating the process through to offer delivery, negotiation and on-boarding.
- Conduct competency based interviews, assess candidates, lead debriefs with hiring managers; mentor and coach managers through their hiring decisions
- Build talent networks and candidate pipelines in key areas across the organization, developing relationships and tapping industry sources to develop robust talent pools
- Maintain a pulse on business needs and strategy, act as EDF brand ambassador and champion best practices throughout the process
- Utilize HRIS (Workday) and our iCIMS Applicant Tracking System as well as provide support as needed to hiring managers
- Develop an on-going pipeline of diverse internal and external candidates for various roles
- Identify opportunities for increased effectiveness of current recruiting programs
- Assist or lead other TA-related projects as assigned; bring new ideas or relevant technologies inprove our effectiveness
- Minimum of 3+ years’ experience in recruitment, either in an RPO or in-house high performing TA function
- You love staying organized and always seeking out better TA practices
- Proven behavioral interview and candidate assessment skills
- Strong relationship management, consultative approach, ability to influence within a matrixed organization
- Self-starter with high energy; ability to work independently and as part of a team
- Positive attitude, and adaptable to change in an evolving and globally scaling environment
- You navigate comfortably inside an organization, but know when to ask for help
- Ability to take initiative, multi-task, meet deadlines and work well under pressure
- Some experience with international recruiting a plus, as is spoken competency in Chinese, other Asian languages,, or Spanish language.
- Knowledge of applicable employment law helpful
- Proficiency in MS Word, Excel, and Outlook required
- Proficient with HRIS and applicant tracking systems preferred iCIMS a plus
- Bachelor’s degree in Human Resources, related field, or equivalent work experience
- Interest in EDF’s mission and objectives preferred
Can be based in either NYC or San Francisco Ofiice
We do not offer relocation for this role, so local candidates only please.
This position can be based in New York City NY, San Francisco CA, Washington D.C., Boston MA or Raleigh NC
The Full-Stack Web Developer is part of the Application Development department under IT Operations and will act as the technical lead on all external website projects in addition to internal applications where required. The candidate will be responsible for the development and support of external websites and internal applications. As technical lead the candidate will guide, mentor and train the web team on new technologies.
- Provide primary development support for Environmental Defense Fund’s web sites and secondary support for internal applications
- Develop custom Drupal themes and modules
- Implement Drupal site building through the UI for content types, advanced Views, Feeds and other configuration
- Ensure we are on a development roadmap to maintain support with Drupal major versions, and plan and execute site migrations accordingly
- Provide technical direction for the development, design, and systems integration of web sites from definition phase through implementation
- Manage the website infrastructure. In conjunction with our vendor’s managed support, monitor performance and perform standard configuration, management, and maintenance tasks in support of web infrastructure
- Implement security updates and patches, as well as resolve any issues identified by routine security audits
- Analyze functional requirements and lead selection of appropriate solutions for projects, create Technical Specifications as needed
- Manage vendor relationship with hosting services provider and other software vendors
- Evaluate and provide recommendations for the selection of existing and emerging technologies that best fit web team and IT needs
- Produce and maintain technical documentation and user guides
- Serve as liaison between application development and web teams
- 5+ years’ experience in the LAMP (Linux, Apache, PHP, MySQL) stack, with command line proficiency
- 5+ years’ experience developing Drupal applications, with experience in creating custom themes and modules for Drupal 7 and 8
- Experience managing cloud infrastructure such as Rackspace or AWS and a load balanced environment.
- Experience with Wordpress CMS platform
- Experience with Git version control, Composer, Drush and Gulp.
- Knowledgeable in web server technologies such as Nginx and Varnish
- Experience developing in a Windows environment and with the Office suite
The Director, PMO will be responsible for day-to-day PMO operations. This includes ensuring that the necessary guidance, processes and resources are in place to drive successful business outcomes. This is a position designed to lead the PMO team comprising of business analysts and project managers in managing an expanded portfolio of projects. Principal accountabilities will encompass all elements of a project from planning to execution and closure. This individual will serve as the champion for organizational change management and develop communication plans throughout the lifecycle of projects while engaging key stakeholders. The Director will also elevate project management skills throughout EDF through the development and implementation standards and artifacts for project / program execution. This key role will support and impact EDF's business transformation and continuous process improvement efforts and requires a diverse set of skills to support special projects as they arise.
Directs and oversees the Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC), which encompasses the planning, organizing, and managing of resources required for the successful completion of specific projects goals and objectives. This includes developing detailed project plans, establishing milestones, defining the resources required, and coordinating all project activities with business owners/stakeholders and technical teams.
Evaluates the scope and complexity of Management Information Systems (MIS) projects and programs, and implements the necessary resources to ensure adherence to policies and procedures. Conducts scoping sessions and assists in the creation of work and proposal statements. This may include providing technical approaches, tasks, deliverables, work estimates, assumptions, and dependencies.
Oversees the development and review of estimates and estimating assumptions for the project's schedule, which includes conducting complex research and analysis to determine the effort it will take to achieve a desired result and the cost to produce it using established estimating models and best practices.
Makes recommendations to senior-level management on procedures aimed at improving and streamlining processes and establishing best practices.
Develops and monitors schedules to ensure that projects are completed within established deadlines. Leads progress meetings, tracks and maintains detailed issues and risks lists, and prepares appropriate status reports. Meets regularly with other related areas to ensure that integration issues are identified and resolved.
Provides complex technical IT support for identifying project risks and mitigation strategies and communicates project level status, risks, and issues to stakeholders.
Interfaces with all levels of business and technical management staff and project teams to facilitate problem resolution and the resolution of competing priorities. Monitors and manages team progress to ensure that project objectives are met.
Manages changes to the project requirements through a formally defined scope change process.
Manages and defines direct reports roles and expectations and ensures that the team receives the necessary training and project resources to achieve projected goals.
Performs day-to-day management of projects, including requirements gathering and design.
Develops business cases and technology sections of RFIs and RFPs, and performs discovery and feasibility studies on new projects under evaluation.
10+ years of experience in business strategy, product development, finance, and/or advanced analytics 7+ years of leading teams of project management and business analysts.
Experience working with Global markets (Internationalization/Localization, LatAM/APAC/EMEA)
Experience delivering software or online solutions in global enterprise environments.
Experience leading and effectively managing a complex platform that is highly reliable and scalable
Ability to work independently in a fast-paced and rapidly changing environment
High degree of organization and ability to manage multiple, competing projects and priorities simultaneously
Ability to think strategically and execute methodically
Excellent communication (verbal and written) and collaboration skills that will enable you to earn trust at all levels
Proven experience of managing products, budgets and justifying resource needs to senior leaders and finance partners
Advanced degree preferred in Information Technology or business
Experience working in the IT organizations of non-profit industry a plus
Technical experience and product development experience a plus
Experience with service oriented architecture and Agile development methodologies
Experience using tools to capture user stories, test cases, sign-offs, etc.
Experience or use of PMP/Lean
Provide leadership and strategic vision to achieve legislative objectives that advance EDF's advocacy goals across program areas. Specific legislative objectives include: preserve clean air rules; advance clean energy policies; lay the groundwork for bipartisan climate legislation; and block congressional efforts to weaken core environmental protections. This position will have a focus on Republican members of Congress.
- Serve as an EDF lobbyist and build a strong network of relationships directly with members of Congress, as well as high-level personal office staff and key committee and leadership staff particularly in Republican offices.
- Develop and implement strategies and plans tailored for Republican offices on climate related issues, such as sustainable agriculture and resilience, as well as comprehensive climate policy.
- Coordinate across programs including with Oceans, Ecosystems and EDAF PAC to ensure the Hill engagements are well coordinated and to build EDF's brand and political influence with lawmakers.
- Collaborate effectively with EDF's legal and regulatory team and external coalitions to block Congressional and executive branch attacks on our nation's bedrock environmental laws and to advance a pro-environment agenda.
- Work closely with strategic partners and communications to help shape our policy-related communications and messaging strategies.
- Collaborate with external organizations, including other NGOs at the federal and state level and company representatives to advance EDF's legislative goals. Collaborate with and direct partner organizations and consultants.
- Assist with fundraising efforts, including writing high quality proposals and reports and cultivating individual donors.
- 10+ years of Capitol Hill lobbying experience, especially with the Republican party
- Bachelor's degree required; Masters would be a plus
- A proven network of Republican congressional contacts
- Experience lobbying on environmental issues
- Familiarity with the NGO community
- Ability to interface with right-leaning environmental groups to ensure collaboration and coordination when needed
As a key member of the Climate program, the Program Financial Analyst will work as a finance and grant specialist. S/he will support projects and initiatives of the Tropical Forest and India Projects and assist the broader Climate team in defining the annual budget submission and in developing effective reporting of the budget and actuals throughout the fiscal year.
This position reports to the Operations Manager, Climate, and will work very closely with EDF’s Finance Department.
- Prepare grant financial reports
- Work with project leads to develop proposal budgets, identify variances and issues in grant-level budget management and advise program managers and project staff on solutions throughout the lifetime of grants
- Work with program management to assist in the development of program annual budget submissions
- Assist in month end close, flag inconsistencies, submit journal entries and update the forecast
- Approve contracts with fiscal terms that comply with best practices and grant guidelines
- Approve invoices, ensure the proper coding of expense items, and review other organizational and department-specific financial and operational processes
- Assist in educating staff on budgetary, operational, and financial policies and processes
- Participate in relevant program meetings and trainings
- Perform ad-hoc financial analytics on request
- At least 4 years of experience in a Finance and/or Accounting department or advanced degree in Finance or Accounting with 2 years of experience
- Experience working at a non-profit organization, experience in international non-profit management a plus
- Undergraduate degree in relevant field
- Grant reporting experience required, government grants experience a plus
- Detail-oriented: the ability to spot trends and ensure accuracy
- Experienced in Excel
- Excellent communication, interpersonal, and diplomatic skills: the ability to effectively liaise with colleagues in a diverse environment
- Experience with forecasting, budgeting and reporting software packages a plus
This position will be located in the New York City or Washington, DC office.
Reporting to the Head of Internal Audit, the Senior Auditor will be responsible for the execution of Internal Audit projects and support all aspects of the Internal Audit function from audit planning, execution, and follow-up including delivering insight reports that highlight process gaps, control deficiencies and areas for improvement. The position will work closely with the Infrastructure teams to add value to the organization by identifying and addressing risks and driving efficiencies.
Maintains an understanding of the financial, operational, and technology processes, risks and controls related to the business.
Conduct preliminary reviews of audit areas to define scope and analyze risk.
Applies process analysis, business intelligence, and problem solving techniques when planning an audit, performing walkthroughs, and identifying effective test steps.
Executes audit field work with minimum supervision.
Demonstrates ability to identify potential issues and support these with data, prepare draft audit reports and communicate with stakeholders.
Support multiple projects simultaneously and effectively manage timelines in order to deliver high quality work products in a timely and efficient manner with limited supervision.
Perform special reviews and other related duties, as assigned.
Continuously expands knowledge of data analytics and use of technology to enhance audit testing, identify opportunities for continuous monitoring and repeatable test plans.
Identifies efficiencies and opportunities for enhancing internal audit delivery.
Provides constructive and timely feedback and assists in identifying development opportunities.
Out of town travel up to 30% per year.
Bachelor's degree, preferably in accounting, finance, or similar.
Minimum 5 years' experience in in the field of internal audit and/or public accounting. Accounting experience preferred from a mid-tier or Big 4 firm.
Certifications (CPA, CIA, CFE, etc.) are highly desired.
Strong communication skills and ability to interact with all levels and functions.
Excellent knowledge of the Microsoft Office. Experience with ACL a plus.
Ability to work both independently and as a member of a team in a fast paced environment and handle multiple tasks simultaneously.
Strong project management, time management, and prioritization skills.
Possess a high energy level and strong work ethic with a commitment to continuous improvement in a dynamic and changing environment that strives to exceed expectations.
Based from our London office, the Head of Communications in Europe is responsible for developing and implementing strategic communications and marketing plans and media relations initiatives that persuasively connect with our target audiences, and help EDF Europe achieve its goals. Working in close cooperation with our European Executive Director, Baroness Bryony Worthington, and our US MarComms team you will represent the Comms function in our UK office. Our audience is global business leaders and influencers, politicians, government officials, policy experts and potential donors. You bring a strategic perspective and strong abilities to take complex, often technical issues and make them accessible and inspiring to decision-makers and media.
You will spearhead the overall EDF Europe communications and marketing effort, including earned, paid and owned channels, with a particular focus on earned media. In addition, you will lead the EDF Europe website and blog strategy, speaking engagements, thought leadership activities, events and collateral development.
Our approach to environmental problems is grounded in science and we have a strong dedication to harnessing new technologies (low costs sensors, satellites, etc.) and vast computing capabilities to deliver change. We call this ‘4th wave environmentalism’ and we are keen to take a similar approach in devising our communications strategy. Therefore, you will be knowledgeable of the most ground breaking communications tools and use them to build and exploit our own channels, as well as use external opportunities.
This position requires knowledge of international environmental issues, key partners, cultures and influences in Europe. You possess excellent communication and high-level writing skills, a pre-existing network of contacts and an ability to execute multiple projects simultaneously. You will also need to establish effective relationships internally and externally to gather and present information in compelling ways.
The Head of Communications in Europe will report to the Vice President, Communications and coordinate closely on a day-to-day basis with EDF Europe Executive Director Baroness Worthington and colleagues in Europe, the United States and in other overseas offices.
- Serve as the principal communications lead in our Europen work covering all communications work, working closely with communications colleagues in our core work areas: Climate and Clean Energy, Oil & Gas Methane, Air Quality and Health and Oceans.
- Ensure internal coordination and message consistency across all brand and program communications in Europe.
- Help develop, refine and execute a communications strategy and plan for Europe with a focus on earned media and digital strategies and tools.
- Develop brand-level messaging and collateral materials, collaborating closely with communications colleagues and EDF Content.
- Identify global business leaders and influencers, politicians, government officials, policy experts and potential donors and the channels that reach them.
- Write high-quality speeches, op-eds, reactions, blogs and other materials; maximise promotion of these materials with credible reporters.
- Position the organisation as a thought leader in Europe, arranging media interviews, public speaking opportunities and opinion pieces for the Executive Director and other senior staff.
- Pitch stories actively to a variety of media, develop and maintain targeted media lists, initiate and maintain regular contact and strong relationships with targeted reporters
- Maintain oversight of the EDFE Twitter account and website
- Plan and execute events such as press conferences, announcements, speeches and in-person meetings with media and other influential stakeholders.
- Direct PR/communications agency support, including setting objectives and tracking results
- Monitor and report on our output, coverage and progress towards our communication goals.
- Edit and proofread written, online and video materials against tight deadlines.
- Regular European and international travel.
- Educated to Masters level or equivalent professional experience;
- Proven track record of professional experience;
- Excellent verbal, written and digital communications skills.
- Proven experience developing and delivering effective communications strategies to achieve policy and advocacy goals, incorporating use of the latest digital tools
- Strong experience pitching and developing productive relationships with UK media channels
- Track record of producing international, national and regional media coverage
- Proven ability to integrate and coordinate communications efforts on multiple channels across a global organisation
- Meticulous attention to detail
- Excellent organisational skills, including ability to handle and prioritise multiple tasks and meet deadlines
- Knowledge of European business leaders and influencers, politics and policy landscape
- An established network of contacts within the marketing and communications sector in Europe
- A teammate with strong social skills and an ability to work independently with light supervision
- Strong presentation skills
- Budgeting and strategic planning skills
This role is based in our London, UK office. You must have the right to live and work in the UK when applying.
Please include a cover letter for further consideration.
Under direction of EDF’s Sr. Director of Regulatory Strategy, the Sr. Manager of Legislative and Regulatory Affairs will be responsible for day-to-day advocacy activities to secure adoption and implementation of state programs to put a firm limit on carbon pollution, and achieve those limits through flexible market-based mechanisms.
The Sr. Manager will work with the Sr. Director of Regulatory Strategy and the rest of the US Climate team to develop strategies to secure ambitious state climate policies and will have day-to-day responsibility for implementing those strategies with the team.
- Coordinate efforts of EDF staff across multiple programs within EDF, partners from other organizations, and consultants working in multiple state towards shared goals and outcomes
- Engage directly with state officials and staff, electric power sector representatives, NGO partners, the media, and other stakeholders
- Identify and pursue opportunities to advance state level work, work with other team members internally on strategic planning and coordination, will provide timely updates to the Sr. Director of Regulatory Strategy and other internal partners and will ensure EDF’s state-based activities are responsive to emerging opportunities and challenges.
The successful applicant will have the following minimum qualifications:
- Advanced degree, preferably in science, policy, economics or law in areas related to energy and the environment or comparable substantive expertise and at least six years of relevant experience.
- Demonstrated history of success in working with senior state officials, environmental NGOs, industry representatives and other stakeholders to secure state-level policy improvements on energy, air quality or other environmental issues – especially those related to the electric power or transportation sectors—and a deep understanding of state-based policymaking and politics.
- A strong working knowledge of Clean Air Act and power sector issues, power market dynamics, and related state policies and politics.
- A thorough understanding of emissions trading programs.
- Familiarity with analytical tools used in assessing emission reduction potential, pathways, and costs, and ability to critically evaluate the inputs and outputs of such analysis and to use results to inform advocacy efforts.
- Keen strategic capacity, and ability to develop an optimized strategy given technical, policy, legal, and political considerations. Ability to continual revise a strategy as new developments arise.
- A demonstrated capacity to develop and oversee effective state-based campaigns to secure improvements in state energy, air quality or other environmental policies.
- Demonstrated ability to lead complex projects with numerous team members in a fast-paced working environment, and a high capacity for working collaboratively across multiple programs.
- Clear, concise and engaging verbal and written communicator.
Significant travel required (30-50%).
EDF's Energy Program is focused on finding, quantifying, and reducing the environmental and health risks of oil and gas development, and catalyzing ground-breaking scientific studies for sensible policy action. EDF has set an ambitious goal to achieve a 45% cut in global methane pollution by 2025 -- in an effort to cut the warming expected over the next 20 years by the same amount as closing one third of the world's coal-fired power plants. EDF also works to protect communities, water supplies, and land resources from the impacts of oil and gas development to achieve win-win for public health and the environment. Building on the successful strategy in North America, EDF is now turning our attention to other regions of the world including China, an increasingly major player in global oil and gas market.
The Senior Manager, Global Energy will play a key role in developing and executing EDF's strategy for reducing methane emissions from China's oil and gas development and investment, and in working with EDF oil and gas land and water experts to disseminate information on ways to reduce impacts on water, land and communities. The Senior Manager, Global Energy will lead strategic relationship building and management, advocate and facilitate the adoption and implementation of sound oil and gas methane and environmental policies, regulations, and best practices by Chinese government and major industry players.
This position will work in close coordination with EDF science, industry engagement, communications, and policy/technical teams in both the U.S. and China to contribute to EDF's global methane and environmental goals. This position will directly report to EDF's Director, Global Energy in the U.S. with a close working relationship with EDF's China Chief Representative in Beijing. Ideal candidates will have a proven track record strategizing and implementing policy advocacy/regulatory initiatives, strong political and cultural sensitivities, deep knowledge of oil and gas/energy/environmental issues and China political system, strong communication and relationship management skills, high degree of comfort with scientific and technical content; and ability to work effectively in a matrix organization.
- Lead and coordinate the development of EDF's strategies in China to reduce methane emissions from oil and gas development; and lead EDF's efforts to manage and implement that strategy.
- Assist in developing and disseminating information on ways to reduce impacts on water, land and communities, and in cultivating relationships with Chinese researchers involved in produced water science.
- Analyze and monitor the progress of relevant rules or laws related to China's climate commitment, environmental protection (air, land and water), energy, in particular the role of natural gas in China's transition towards a low-carbon future.
- Analyze and monitor the role of natural gas in China's global strategy such as the Belt and Road Initiative; track development and implementation effectiveness of related financial mechanisms and green investment standards.
- Represent EDF, as appropriate, in front of policy-makers, regulators or other key thought leaders; participate in coalitions, stakeholder meetings or other relevant external forums.
- Develop and manage strategic partnerships and engagements with key government agencies, industry players, and policy think-tanks in the energy/oil and gas/environmental sectors to ensure that smart and effective oil and gas methane regulations and best practices are developed and implemented throughout oil and gas supply chain.
- Work in close collaboration with stakeholders within EDF, including the Beijing office, science, policy and communications teams to execute strategy.
- Develop and manage relationships among external partners, including government officials, oil and gas companies, technology providers and scientists, and consultants, with the goal ensuring that project results are scientifically and technically rigorous, solution-oriented, actionable and timely.
- Manage the necessary budget, and contribute to EDF Oil & Gas fundraising efforts.
- Undertake and complete special projects as assigned by senior leadership.
We are seeking a seasoned manager with a deep understanding of oil and gas regulatory policy, strong policy skills and a proven background of effective advocacy around complex technical issues. Qualifications for this position include:
- Minimum eight years' experience in the corporate, public, consulting, academic or non-profit sectors, including demonstrated ability to understand oil and gas operations and emissions/environmental management, managing complex projects and working with external partners to achieve program goals.
- Previous regulatory and policy experience working on China's oil and gas issues is strongly preferred.
- Experience with China's environmental/energy regulatory policy and processes required.
- Excellent written and oral communication skills, particularly the ability to translate highly technical/scientific information for non-experts. A writing sample and/or sample work product will be required as part of the interview process.
- Ability to work with colleagues and partners of varied backgrounds and experience.
- Exceptional organizational skills and attention to detail.
- An ability to work both independently and as part of a team in a fast-paced, dynamic, and entrepreneurial environment.
- Ability to travel and work across different time zones.
- Fluency (reading, writing and speaking) in English and Mandarin Chinese required.
Please submit resume, cover letter and writing samples to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cultivates, solicits, and stewards a portfolio of current and prospective legacy donors in California. Close bequests, charitable gift annuities, other planned gifts and outright gifts through personalized correspondence, telephone calls and face to face visits. Participate in marketing legacy gifts to donors and prospects. The Planned Giving Officer will be an experienced development professional with the skills and drive to implement all aspects of a comprehensive Planned Giving program. This position reports to the Director of Planned Giving and will be based in San Francisco.
- Manage a portfolio of donors in all phases of development including cultivation, solicitation and stewardship. Secure, plan, and engage in face to face visits.
- Develop and maintain positive relationships with EDF donors at all giving levels.
- Create compelling, well written request letters, donor proposals, and other correspondence.
- Develop and maintain strong collaborative working relationships within the Development department and with all levels of EDF staff.
- Level of Independence and Decision-making:
- Independently respond to donor inquiries with appropriate information on bequests, life income gifts and other gift planning vehicles and produce associated contracts. Considerable judgment and initiative are often exercised in dealing with donors and interpreting policy and procedures.
- Analysis and problem-solving:
- Develop and implement creative and effective solicitation, cultivation and stewardship strategies. Able to utilize software and systems to track key metrics, prioritize activities and analyze portfolio status.
- Key contributor of Planned Giving team and responsible for achieving assigned financial, cultivation and stewardship goals. Assist in developing and executing national multi-channel marketing programs including print and online newsletter articles, advertisements, solicitations, presentations and brochures.
- Bachelor's degree and a minimum of 5 years work experience in Planned Giving or similar experience working directly with clients in financial services or estate planning.
- Experience working in a non-profit institution of comparable complexity and scale is preferred.
- Demonstrated knowledge of planned giving vehicles and basic estate and financial planning, including the tax implications of charitable giving. Ability to apply this knowledge to address individual donor needs and goals. Keep abreast of changes and emerging issues in Planned Giving.
- Exceptional planning, organization, time management, analytical, and multi-tasking skills.
- Excellent writing, communication, and presentation skills.
- Capacity to work easily and effectively with a wide range of people; adept at building relationships.
- Comfortable working in a fast-paced, flexible, collegial, goal-oriented and entrepreneurial environment.
- The highest level of personal and professional integrity and quality standards.
- Proficient in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Planned Giving Manager and donor tracking software (preferably Sales Force).
- Commitment to the mission of Environmental Defense Fund.
- Ability to travel as needed.